In this article, we have published an Essay on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Early Life, Education, Career, Death.
Bose was a nationalist, revolutionist and a soldier of India Independence struggle. He was one of the rationalists who believed in the war to get rid of British rule.
To achieve this, he shook hands with Hitler’s Nazi and Japan Imperial, which brought criticism and also created a troubling legacy. Even after all this criticism, his contribution to making free India was undeniable.
Early life and education
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January in 1897 at Cuttack, Bengal Province (Now Orissa). His father’s name was Janakinath Bose and his mother’s name was Prabhvati Devi. He belonged to a well-doing Kayastha family.
He started his education in Protestant European School (presently Stewart High School) in Cuttack. In the year of 1909, he was shifted to Ravenshaw Collegiate school. Subhash Chandra Bose secured the second position in the matriculation examination and was admitted to Presidency College.
He was greatly moved by Swami Vivekananda. Due to his influence, the spark against the British was kindled in his mind. His nationalist temperament was exposed when he assaulted professor Orton in the protest of insults to Indians by the British in the open forum. He completed his Bachelor of Arts degree from Scottish Church College.
After graduation, Subhash Chandra Bose went to Europe and arrived in London. He planned to start preparing for the Indian Civil Service examination. He was eager to join the University of Cambridge. But the deadline for admission was passed.
With the help of some local contacts and the Indian students, he managed to get admission in the university. Subhash Chandra Bose started to prepare for ICS. He stood forth in the examination.
But he refused to work under the British government. He realized that the national edifice can be raised only by sacrifice and being on the soil of the motherland. He left the civil service job and came back to India.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose played a crucial role in India’s freedom movement. He was an integral part of the Indian National Congress until their views differed and they drifted apart
Indian National Congress- He started the newspaper named Swaraj and took the responsibility to campaign on behalf of the Indian National Congress in Bengal province. His mentor was Chittaranjan Das, who was the face of aggressive nationalism in Bengal. In 1923, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was elected the President of the All India Youth Congress.
He was also the Secretary of Bengal State Congress. Later he became the CEO of Calcutta Municipal Corporation. Subhash Chandra Bose was the editor of the newspaper named ‘Forward’. He became general secretary of the Congress party and started working with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.
Illness, Austria – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose traveled to Europe. In there, he saw the raw picture of communism and fascism. He wrote his first book named ‘The Indian struggle’. Although the book was published in London, the British banned the book to publish in India with the fear that it might cause unrest.
1937-1940: Indian National Congress
By this time, Bose managed to emerge as a leader with national stature. He believed in the view that Independence can be achieved only by nationalist acts, through war. Subhash Chandra Bose suggested forming the Indian National Army to achieve political freedom and social stabilization.
But his belief directly countered Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent approach. Gandhi asked him to split apart and form a new cabinet. But in the assembly of India National Congress, he was elected as president over the candidate preferred by Gandhi. Subhash Chandra Bose got massive votes from the southern provinces of India. But as a result of maneuvering from Gandhi led a bloc of the party, he was forced to resign from the post of president.
On 22 June 1939, Bose formed the All India Forward Bloc, a faction of the Indian National Congress, aiming to consolidate the political left, but its main strength lies in his home state of Bengal. Yu Muthuramalingam, who has been a staunch supporter of Bose from the beginning, joined Thevar Forward Block. When Bose visited Madurai on September 6, Thevar held a huge rally as his reception.
Although his correspondence was a clear dislike of British oppression, he was very impressed with their methodology and their disciplined attitude towards order and life. In England, he exchanged ideas with the British on the future of India.
Subhash Chandra Bose believed that an independent India needed socialist authoritarianism. Failing to convince Gandhi of its necessity, Bose organized a mass protest in Calcutta and called for the removal of the ‘Howell Monument’ in memory of Calcutta’s black hole. He was jailed by the British but released after a seven-day hunger strike. Bose’s house in Calcutta was placed under CID surveillance.
1941-1943: Nazi Germany
Germany, where he was attached to the Special Bureau for India under the direction of Adam von Trott zu Solz, was responsible for broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Center in Berlin and created the Indian Legion (with about 4500 soldiers) in the Indian war prisoners who fought for the British in North Africa before the Axis forces took over.
The Indian Legion was merged with the Wehrmacht and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Its members swore allegiance to Hitler and Bose: “I swear to God that I will obey the German race and state leader Adolf Hitler as commander of the German Armed Forces in the fight for India.
However, Nazi forces led by the Azad Hind Legion are also ready to invade India through the USSR; Many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems likely that the Germans could easily leave after such an invasion, which could also be the reason for the axis victory in the war.
In all, over 3,000 Indian prisoners of war have signed up for the Free India Legion. But instead of being happy, Bose was concerned. A left-wing admirer of Russia, he was exterminated when Hitler tanks floated across the Soviet border. Things have worsened since the now dwindling German army was not in a position to help the British escape from India.
When he met Hitler in May 1942, his doubts were re-inforced and he believed that the Nazi leader was more looking for in using his army to achieve propaganda than military success. So, in February 1943, Bose boarded a German U-boat and set off for Japan. This made the men he did not appoint a leader frustrating in Germany.
1943-1945: Japanese occupied Asia
In 1943, after disillusioning that Germany could do anything to help India gain independence, he set out for Japan. Subhash Chandra Bose traveled around the Cape of Good Hope in the southeast of Madagascar with a German Submarine U-180, where he was transferred to I-29 for the remainder of the journey to Imperial Japan. It was the only civilian transfer between two submarines of two different navies in World War II.
Indian National Army (INA) Japanese Major (and Post-War Lieutenant General) Iwichi Fujiwara, head of the Japanese Intelligence Unit, Fujiwara Kikan, and its origins, first at the meetings between Fujiwara and Bangkok Chapter President, Indian Independence League Through the network, the West Malayan Peninsula in December 1941 Captain Mohan Singh captured the British Indian Army recruiting no Fujiwara.
In Tohoku airport, Bose was departing the standard route taken by the aircraft during takeoff, suddenly, the people heard a huge noise of blasting. Mechanics at Tarmac saw something falling off the plane.
The plane crashed to the right, crashed into two, and exploded. Inside, the chief pilot, the copilot, and Vice Chief Lieutenant General of Japan’s Kwantung Army, Lieutenant General Tsunamasa Shide, had to negotiate with the Soviet army in Manchuria for Bose and were killed instantly.
Bose’s aide, Habibar Rehman, was shocked, briefly exited, and drowned in gasoline, though Bose was unconscious and not fatally injured. When Rehman arrived, he and Bose tried to get through the back door but found it was blocked by luggage. They then decided to run through the fire and exit.
The ground crew, now approaching the plane, saw two people staggering toward them, one of whom turned into a human fire. According to Joyce Chapman Lebra, “An ambulance truck drove Bose and other passengers to a military hospital south of Tahoe.” Airport staff called Dr.
Taneyoshi Yoshimi, a surgeon in the hospital at 3 p.m. Bose was conscious and largely coherent when they arrived at the hospital, and for a while. Bose was naked, wrapped in a blanket around him, and Dr.
Yoshimi immediately saw evidence of third-degree burns on many parts of the body, especially his chest, and was very skeptical that he was alive. Dr. Yoshimi immediately began treating Bose and was assisted by Dr. Suruta. According to historian Leonard A. Gordon, who interviewed hospital staff.