Essay on Guru Nanak Devji, Birth, Family, Early Life, and His Teachings

In this article, you will read Essay on Guru Nanak Devji, Birth, Family Early Life, and his Teachings.

Guru Nanak, also mentioned as Baba Nanak(‘father Nanak’), was the founding father of Sikhism and, therefore, the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. Worldwide the birthday of Guru Nanak is celebrated as Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day within the month of Katak, October–November.

Nanak traveled far and wide, teaching people the message of 1 God who dwells in all of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He found out a singular spiritual, social, and platform supported equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.

Nanak’s words noted the sort of 974 poetic hymns within the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Adi Granth. It worked with a number of the central prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and therefore the Sidh-Gosht.

It’s a part of Sikh religion that the spirit of Nanak’s sanctity, divinity, and none secular authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship devolved on to them.

Also Read: Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti


Although consistent with one tradition, he was born within the month of Kartik (November). Most Janam Sakhi – the standard biographies of Nanak – mentions that he was born on the third day of the brilliant lunar fortnight, within the Baisakh month (April) of Samvat 1526.

These include the Puratan Janam Sakhi, Sodhi Meharban’s Janam Sakhi, Bhai Mani Singh Janam Sakhi, and, therefore, the Vairowalwali Janam Sakhi. The Sikh records state that Nanak died on the 10th day of the Asauj month of Samvat 1596 (22 September 1539 CE), at the age of 70 years, five months, and seven days. It further suggests that he was born within the month of Baisakh (April), not Kartik (November).

Family and Early Life

Nanak’s parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, and Mata Tripta. His father was the local patwari (accountant) for crop revenue within the village of Talwandi.

His parents were Hindu Khatris and employed as merchants. His birth and early years of life had many events that demonstrated that Guru Nanak marked with divine grace.

Commentaries on his life explain of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of 5, Nanak claimed to possess voiced interest in divine subjects. He enrolled in the village school at the age of seven.

Notable lore recounts that as a toddler, Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the initial letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of 1, as denoting the unity or oneness of God. There was in one particular incident where when young Nanak was sleeping, and his head was shaded from the sunlight by a venomous cobra which was witnessed by Raj Bular.


During half-moon of the 16th century, Nanak went on long journeys for spiritual pursuits. A verse authored by him states that he visited several places in “the nine regions of the earth” (nau-Khand), presumably the main Hindu and Muslim pilgrimage centers.

At the age of 27, he visited Tibet, most of South Asia and Arabia, starting 1496 when he left his family. There are also claims in the modern texts that he visited Mount Sumeru, Achal Batala, Mecca Baghdad, and Multan, where he debated religious ideas with other competing groups.

These stories became widely popular within the 19th and 20th century, and exist in many versions. The hagiographic details may be a subject of dispute, with modern scholarship questioning the small print and authenticity of the many claims.

Many of his travel stories first appeared in hagiographic accounts that don’t exist in the Sikh text after his death. They still become more sophisticated over time; with the latter phase, Puratan version described the four missionary journeys, which, however, differs from the Miharban version.

A number of the stories about Guru Nanak’s extensive travels first appear within the 19th-century versions of Janam-Sakhi within the Puratan version. Further, in the Puratan version, the stories about the Guru Nanak visits Baghdad is not present. The insertion of latest stories is consistent with Callewaert and Snell, closely parallel claims of miracles by Islamic pirs found in Sufi tazkiras of an equivalent era, and these legends written during a competition.

Last Years

Around the age of 55, Nanak settled in Kartarpur and lived there until his death in September 1539. During this era, he went on short journeys to the Nath yogi center of Achal, and therefore the Sufi centers of Pakpattan and Multan. Several of the people were becoming his followers within the Punjab region by the time of Guru Nanak’s death.

Guru Nanak appointed Bhai Lehna because of the successor Guru, renaming him as Guru Angad, meaning “one’s very own” or “part of you.” Shortly after proclaiming Bhai Lehna as his successor, Nanak died on 22 September 1539 in Kartarpur, at the age of 70.


Nanak is taken into account the founding father of Sikhism. The Sikhism beliefs, which were articulated in the scripture by Guru Adi Granth, included the faith and meditation in the name of the one creator, selfless service for humankind, benefit, and prosperity of all conduct and livelihood while living householder’s life.

The Guru Adi Granth is worshipped because the judge of Sikhism and is taken into account the eleventh and final Guru of Sikhism. Because of the first guru of Sikhism, Nanak contributed a complete of 974 hymns to the book.


Nanak’s teachings found within the Sikh scripture Guru Adi Granth, as a set of verses recorded in Gurmukhi. On Guru Nanak’s teachings, there are two competing theories. In one,  the teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God and not a social protest movement, and the second is consistent with Cole and Sambhi, which predicated on hagiographical Janamsakhis, nor any plan to reconcile Hinduism and Islam within the 15th century. In The opposite states, Nanak was a Guru. Consistent with Singha, “Sikhism doesn’t subscribe to the idea of incarnation or the concept of prophethood.

But it’s a central concept of Guru. He’s not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. he’s an illumined soul.” Nanak never wrote the hagiographical Janamsakhis but followers later without regard for historical accuracy, and contain numerous myths and legends created to point out respect for Nanak.

Sikhism isn’t limited to the teachings of only Nanak. Still, they also include all Sikh Gurus, which was clarified by Cole and Sambhi in term revelation also because of the words of past, present, and future men and ladies, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation.

The Sikh revelations include the teachings of the non-Sikh bhagats. Some of them lived and died before the birth of Nanak. Sikhism is not about hearing the voices from God; instead, it is about changing the character of humankind, which was emphasized by The Adi Granth and successive Sikh Gurus, and anyone can do direct experience and spiritual perfection at any time”.Guru Nanak emphasized that each one citizenry can have direct access to God without rituals or priests.


Guru Nanak’s message divinely revealed is believed by the Sikhs. Sikhs give the utmost importance to the writings of the gurus in Guru Adi Granth, the holy book revered because of the 11th and perpetual Guru. Guru Nanak’s own words in Guru Adi Granth state that his teachings are as he has received them from the Creator Himself. The critical event of his life in Sultanpur, when he returned after three days with enlightenment, also supports this belief.

Many modern historians give weight to his teachings’ linkage with the pre-existing Bhakti, Sant, and Sufi saints. Scholars state that in its origins, Nanak and Sikhism were influenced by the nirguni (formless God) tradition of the Bhakti movement in medieval India. However, some historians don’t see evidence of Sikhism as merely an extension of the Bhakti movement. Sikhism, as an example, disagreed with some views of Bhakti saints Kabir and Ravidas.

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