In this article, you will read about Constitution of India, its background, Constituent Assembly, Membership, Drafting, Structure.
Introduction (Constitution of India)
The supreme law of India is known as the Constitution of India. The framework of demarcating fundamental political code laid down in the documents, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of state institutions. It sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and, therefore, the responsibilities of citizens.
It’s the longest written constitution of any country on earth. The chief architect of the Indian Constitution considered as B. R. Ambedkar, who was chairman of the drafting committee.
Constitutional supremacy imparted on the Indian Constitution, not parliamentary sovereignty since it had been created by a constituent assembly instead of Parliament and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble.
The Constitution B. R. Ambedkar cannot override by the Parliament and Constitution of India on the 2015 India postage. It was embraced by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and has become effective on 26 January 1950.
The Constitution replaced the govt of India Act, 1935, because the country’s fundamental governing document, and therefore the Dominion of India, became the Republic of India. The framers repealed prior acts of the British Parliament in Article 395 to make sure constitutional autochthony. On 26 January, India celebrates its constitution acceptance day as Republic Day.
Background of Indian Constitution
British ruled from 1857 to 1947 most of the Indian subcontinent. From 1947 to 1950, equivalent legislation continued to implement as India was a dominion of England for three years, as each princely state was encouraged by V.P. Menon and Sardar Patel to sign the articles of assimilation with India.
Therefore, the British government continued to be liable for the external security of the country. Indian Constitution repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935, when it became valid on 26 January 1950.
India stopped to be a dominion of the British Crown and have become a sovereign democratic republic with the Constitution. Articles 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 60, 324, 367, 366, 379, 388, 394, 391, 393, 392, and 380 of the Constitution came into force on 26 November 1949, and therefore on 26 January 1950, the remaining articles became effective.
The Constituent Assembly, which was elected by members elected by the provincial assemblies, drafted the Constitution. The 299-member assembly (which reduced from 389 after the partition of India) drafted the Constitution, which took almost three years, holding eleven sessions over 165 days.
B. R. Ambedkar had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries was a wise constitutional expert; he was a thoughtful legal expert. Ambedkar recognized because of the “Father of the Constitution of India.” Within the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari, said: “Mr. President, Sir, I’m one among those within the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar very carefully.
I’m conscious of the quantity of labor and enthusiasm that he has delivered to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. At an equivalent time, I do realize that that quantity of attention that was necessary for the aim of drafting a constitution so important to us at this moment has not been given to it by the Drafting Committee.
The home is perhaps aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had resigned from the House and was replaced. One died and wasn’t replaced. Another one was away in America, and his place filled up, and another person was involved in State matters, and there was a void to its extent.
One or two people were distant from Delhi, and maybe reasons of health didn’t permit them to attend. The burden of drafting this Constitution ultimately fell on Dr. Ambedkar and that I haven’t any hesitation that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task during a manner which is undoubtedly commendable.”
Membership in Indian Constitution
B. R. Ambedkar, C. Rajagopalachari Sanjay Phakey, Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad, Sandipkumar Patel, KanaiyalalManeklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Abul Kalam Azad, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, and Balwantrai Mehta were vital figures within the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes.
The Anglo-Indian community represented by Frank Anthony and, therefore, the H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee represented the Parsis community, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee, and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community.
Judges, like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, K. M. Munshi, BenegalNarsingRau, and Ganesh Mavlankar, were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Durgabai Deshmukh Hansa Mehta, Amrit Kaur, and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit. Sachchidananda Sinha, who was the first, two-day president of the assembly; Rajendra Prasad was later elected president. The group met the first time on 9 December 1946.
Drafting of Indian Constitution
In the International Court of Justice, an official Benegal Narsing Rau who became the primary Indian judge & was president of the UNSC appointed in 1946 as the assembly’s constitutional adviser. The Constitution’s general structure was his responsible; Rau prepared its initial draft in February 1948. Committees were proposed at the 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly.
The selection considered, debated, and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, appointed by B. R. Ambedkar, who was the chair on 29 August 1947 with A revised draft constitution prepared by the committee and presented to the assembly on 4 November 1947.
While deliberating the revised draft constitution, the meeting moved, discussed, and disposed of 2,473 amendments out of a complete of seven, 635. The meeting held eleven sessions in 165 days before adopting the Constitution.
The Constitution embraced on 26 November 1949, which was signed by 284 members. The day is widely known as National Law Day or Constitution Day; the day chosen to widespread the significance of the Constitution and to spread thoughts and concepts of Ambedkar.
A bespectacled Nehru is bending over an outsized book Jawaharlal Nehru signing the Constitution the assembly’s final session convened on 24 January 1950. Two copies of the Constitution were signed by each member, one in Hindi and, therefore, the other in English. In the original Constitution, each page is hand-written, decorated by artists from Shantiniketan, including BeoharRammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose.
Its calligrapher was Prem BehariNarainRaizada. In Dehradun, the Constitution was published and photolithographed by the Survey of India. Production of the first Constitution took nearly five years.
On 26 January 1950, which was two days later, it became the law of India. The approximate cost of the Constituent Assembly was ₹6.3 crore (₹63 million). The Constitution has had quite 100 amendments since it had enacted.
Structure of Constitution of India
The Indian Constitution is the world’s lengthiest for an autonomous nation. At its legislation, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and eight schedules. At about 145,000 words, it’s the second-longest active Constitution – after the Constitution of Alabama – within the world.
The Constitution features a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it’s been amended 103 times; the newest amendment became effective on 14 January 2019.