Evolution of Various Mobile Generation Technology 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G

In this article, we will talk about the Evolution of Various Mobile Generation Technology i.e 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G. These are also known as the technology behind a Mobile Phone.

Evolution of Various Mobile Generation Technology 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G

Probably you have previously heard cellular networks described as “3G” or “4G”. Each of them represents the iteration of cellular network technology. “G” stands for generation, so 2G (second generation) appeared before 3G, 3G before 4G and so on.

Most of us have to be a witness to the evolution from the time when cell phones were bulky and brick structures to the current era of smartphones.

Besides the structure, appearance and operation of the wireless device evolved much more. We refer to advanced technology that brought with it more significant facilities and faster Internet speeds.

Identifying the strengths of mobile phone technology is simple as far as you realize the results of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G. 1G describes to the first generation of wireless cellular technology; 2G mentions the second generation of technology and so on.

As you might expect, the next generations are faster and contain improved or new features. Most wireless operators currently support both 3G and 4G technology, which is useful when the location allows the phone to operate at a higher speed.

 Since introduced 1G in the early 1980s, new wireless technology in the mobile telephony, it has been upgrading about every 7-8 years. All refer to the technology used by the mobile operator and the device itself.

Latest have different speeds and functions that improve the previous generation. The next generation is 5G, which plans to launch in 2020.

1G network: Only voice

Do you remember analog phones in those days? Mobile phones began with 1G technology. 1G was the first generation of wireless cellular technology that only supports voice calls. 

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It introduced 1G wireless technology to the market in 1980. Despite its limitations, it considered a revolution in the real sense because it has for the first time allowed “communication in motion.”

1 G technology that considers voice network transmits radio waves in an analog signal. This allowed only a certain number of users to communicate wirelessly at the same time and was sensitive to other radio devices stored/used nearby, causing background disturbance.

It was good to send the signal a relatively greater distance that resulted in lower connection drops. 1G is the analog technology, and phones that use it have low battery life and low voice quality, little security and are prone to breaking the connection. The maximum speed of 1G technology is 2.4 Kb/s.

2G Technology for Voice, MMS, Slow Speed Internet

It exposed people to voice services and send SMS and MMS on their wireless phones when 2G made its entry in 1991.

It was first presented in Finland. Unlike 1G, 2G transmits radio signals in a digital format that made it more reliable and secure. Digitally encrypted signals consume less energy, making mobile batteries last longer.

The 2G generation introduced additional features such as text messages and multimedia messages that we take for granted today. 2G technology has enabled users to use the Internet on their phones for the first time.

The speed of the 2G Internet at speeds up to 250 kb/s, compared to what we are happy with today, was tiny. However, this did not stop enthusiastic users from accessing the Worldwide Web.

The 2G digital network, popularly called GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), used technology FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) and (TDMA) Time Division Multiple Access to eliminate the barriers of limited user base and background noise.

 Cell phones have undergone the first major modernization when their technology has grown from 1G to 2G. This jump took place in Finland in 1991. In GSM networks transferred mobile phones from analog to digital communication.

Although 2G has replaced 1G and has been replaced by later versions of the technology, it is still using around the world.

2.5G and 2.75G network

Before a significant jump from 2G to 3G wireless networks, the lesser popular 2.5G and 2.75G were temporary standards that filled the gap to allow data transmission – slow data transmission.

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2.5G introduced a new packet switching technique that was more efficient than 2G technology. This led to 2.75G, which gave the theoretical triple increase in speed.

AT & T was the first GSM network supporting 2.75G from EDGE in the USA 2.5G, and 2.75G are not formally defined as wireless standards. They served mainly as marketing tools to promote the new functions of a mobile phone in society.

3G: Enhanced speed suitable for video calls and mobile Internet

By the introduction of the 3G network, it resulted in faster data transfer, thanks to which it was possible to use a mobile phone in more demanding data, such as video calls and mobile Internet access. The term “mobile broadband” was used for the first time in 3G network technology.

The difference between 2G and 3G was quite noticeable. The main factor contributing to this was the tremendous jump in 3G speed.

Earlier 2G speed did not allow the user to perform many activities via mobile Internet. 3G network, introduced in 2001, Uses UTMS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) to deliver data at a much higher speed, paving the way for devices such as videoconferencing and mobile TV. 3G transmission speeds from 200kbps to 7.2mbps.

Code-based multiplexing has been used to transmit signals to multiple users in the same frequency band. Technological progress in the field of mathematical and algorithmic improvements has resulted in the 3G mobile network to transmit signals with higher efficiency at lower power. 3G used a more secure encryption algorithm to transfer data, increasing its reliability.

 It estimates the average 3G speed at approximately 2 Mb/s for non-moving devices and 384 Kb/s in vehicles in motion.

4G technology: Current standard High-Speed Internet for Broad works

It published the next chapter in the history of wireless generation in 2011, the 4G network. Things related to technology, data speed, and usage have become entirely different here. It supports game services, HD mobile TV, videoconferencing, 3D TVs and other functions that require high speed.

The maximum 4G network speed when the device is moving is 50 Mb/s.

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Switch from 3G to 4G: The most noticeable was the transition from average data speed to a speed comparable to broadband connections. With speeds up to 10 times higher than the 3G network.

4G has emerged as the future of mobile communication. The fourth generation of wireless technology is supporting a high number of users.

When 4G was introduced the first time, although many mobile devices supported the new network, the physical structure of the wireless network was not ready in the background.

Thus, although mobile phones are adequately equipped, they tried to catch rarely available 4G signals. This meant that most of the time, it worked on 3G signals.

4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) has evolved to reach 4G speed as it was meant to be. However, this name (4G LTE) initially turned out to be an advertising gimmick for brands for the sales of mobile phones. Only recently, the 4G data rate, as defined above, has become available in India by jio and some other company.

Most current cellphone models support 4G technology.

5G network: Coming soon

5G is not yet implemented wireless technology, which is to improve 4G. 5G promises much faster data transfer, higher connection density, significantly lower delays, and energy savings, among others. The predicted theoretical connection speed of 5G is up to 20 Gb/s.

5G is the latest and most advanced generation of cellular technology, which has a faster speed, better network reliability, higher bandwidth, and lower latency. Currently, it is installing nationwide by leading American carriers – AT & T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon.

Speeds 5G compared to 2G, 3G, 4G:

Each new mobile network technology provides a higher download speed than the previous one. 5G networks are still evolving, so the average speeds of this latest generation are still being determined.

The 5G speed information collected below is based on current speed tests. It would possibly download a full-length HD movie in less than two minutes with 5G network. A full-speed comparison is available in the following table.

Mobile Network Generation Speeds Compared 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G:

Mobile Network Average Speed Peak Speed
2G 0.1Mbps 0.3Mbps
3G 3Mbps 7.2Mbps
3G (HSPA+) 6Mbps 42Mbps
4G LTE 20Mbps 150Mbps
5G 500-700Mbps 10 or 20Gbps

Note: It collected a 5G speed range based on current speed tests available on the Verizon 5G Ultra Wideband network. Carriers say 5G speeds are 10 or 20 times faster than 4G LTE. 

Ref:

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4dfd/40cc3a386573ee861c5329ab4c6711210819.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_technology
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mobile_phone_generations