Communication: Definition, Concept, Process, and Types

In this article, we have explained what is communication, Its Concept, Process, and Types also definitions by various scholars.

What is Communication? Its Definition, Concept, Process, and Types

What is communication?

Communication is the activities of sending information or ideas through speech, visualization, writing or other means.  It is a dynamic process of exchange of ideas between sender and receivers that takes place around us all the time. It is a fundamental and essential process for Living being for exchange of feeling.

We spend 75% of our time involvement in communication in receiving and sending the messages. In the meantime, speech or ideas must be simple enough to be decoded and understood by the recipient. If ideas do not correctly present, decoding is inappropriate, and the recipient does not understand.

Definition:

The source of the word ‘communication,’ derived from ‘communism,’ that means ‘to communicate,’ ‘to share’ ‘to take part in decode and encode the information,” is the meaning of “communication.”

Definitions by Various famous scholars:

1. John Adair

Communication is the ability of one person to get in touch with each other and understand each other.

 2. Keith Davis

Communication is the process of transferring information and understanding from one person to another.

 3. William Newman and Charles Sumner

Communication is the exchange of ideas, facts, opinions, or emotions of two or more people.

4. Peter Little

Communication is the process by which it sends information between sender and receivers to get an understanding of the communication.

 5. Louis Allen

Communication is a bridge. It includes a systematic and continuous process of speaking, listening, and understanding.

6. Murphy, Hildebrandt, Thomas

Communication is the process of sending and receiving verbal and non-verbal messages. It considers complete while it achieves the desired reaction from the recipient.

Communication process:

It is a two-way process that includes the following elements: sender, message, carrier, channel, receiver, response, and feedback. However, it is not enough to have all these elements always.

There should be an understanding of and cooperation between the two parties involved. It is essential to have a typical frame of reference or context for successful and meaningful communication, e.g., a common language or a conventional interpretation of the gesture.

It concerns the sender, messenger, and recipient. Both should share a commonly accepted code, e.g., a universal language.

The context in contact is known as the “environment.” in which the code of the communication sends in specific medium (oral, written or non-verbal) using channels (air, microphones, body images, text, etc.) in the form of encoded messages.

The “code” is not limited to language; It can also include the use of costumes, gestures, colors, and others.

The communication process describes as follows:

The sender sends a “message” using “medium” or “channel” to the “recipient.” The message reaches the sensual world of the recipient.

The recipient’s brain filters the message based on his knowledge, emotions, attitudes, prejudices and understands there is a unique meaning. This meaning can trigger the response that the recipient’s mind creates.

The recipient encodes his answer and sends it as “feedback” to the sentient world of the sender. This completes one communication cycle, and the process is continued cyclically, cycle after cycle, as long as it involves people in it.

It explains the elements of the communication process as follows:

1. Idea or impulse appears in the sender’s mind

2. The formal expression of the idea or impulse using medium or channel- coding

3. Interpretation of the message by the recipient- decoding

4. Reaction or feedback of the recipient

 5. Passing reaction/response in feedback using medium or channel

 6. Decoding received feedback

The essence of effective communication is

1. Common communication environment

2. Cooperation between the sender and the recipient

3. Choosing the right channel

4. Correct coding and decoding of the message

5. Getting the desired response and feedback

Types of Communication

There are various types of communications, as described below:

Verbal

Verbal communication can also be called oral communication. Talk by mouth that takes place between people is called verbal communication.

This makes sure that people understand everything you want to convey. Because of its nature, verbal communication is faster and more precise than e-mail or written communication. There is an essential aspect of verbal communication because it sees as a valid result in it.

The manager or team leader must have excellent verbal communication skills. The manager must support a team of people and be qualified to convince the team of people to do what they want. 

The higher the organization, the better verbal skills should be. This is because it needs to ensure that the speech is accurate and factual and leaves no room for any misunderstandings.

Non-verbal

How do you show while you make entry the in the room? Is your body language strong, do you stand straight or dull? Are you looking healthy or tired? Are you clean-shaven? When you shake hands, do you do it hard, or do you wash your hand against others?

The above were examples of non-verbal communication or interpersonal communication. One of the HR requirements for new employees in the organization is to have excellent interpersonal skills. This means that employees should refresh their non-verbal skills.

If you were at a sales meeting and you have not achieved your target, then how do you react? Will you be calm? Will you panic and stutter? These are the essential role of non-verbal skills, and your growth may depend on them.

Written

There are many ways to use written communication. This is doing by the use of technology smartphones and the Internet. Most common forms of written communication today is e-mail, WhatsApp, message, social media and other applications for online messaging using.

Visual

There are many elements of visual communication marketers or companies use as advertisements, presentations, Colours, animations, design (logo and brand design), illustrations, etc.

Disturbances in Communications:

Noise: In some cases, the message may not give the desired response because of a semantic interruption or barrier between the sender and the recipient. It refers this to as “noise”; refers to any unplanned interference in contact that causes an obstacle in the transmission of messages.

There are two types of “noise”:

1. Channel noise: refers to static, mechanical failures, volume problems, altitude, readability of text, etc.

2. Semantic: Here “noise” is generated internally because of errors in the message itself: ambiguity, grammatical mistakes, incorrect spelling, incorrect punctuation, etc.

Feedback:

The delivery of the recipient’s reply to the sender is called “feedback.” It is one of the essential factors in the communication process. This is necessary because it is a barometer of effective communication.

The sender should know if the recipient of the message has received it intended and whether he responds desirably. Off course, even if someone receives an answer, it may be the answer you expected.

However, when you receive a reply, you know that the message has been forwarded, e.g., a meeting notice. This message can be both positive and negative.

Some may appear at the meeting, and others may not. It is said that communication is only complete when senders receive the desired response from receivers.

Feedback helps to improve communication because it allows the sender to understand defects in the transmission of messages. A nimble messenger always looks for warning signs that communication is not going well and adapts messages accordingly.

Receiving feedback helps the sender know if he is on the right track. In the long run, it helps to understand the strengths and weaknesses in the context of communication.

In the business world, managers should provide facilities and opportunities to get feedback. It can be done by creating internal systems and forums that allow employees to express their views and communicate decisions.

Market research is another way to get feedback and information from employees and external target groups.

Types of Feedbacks:

The feedback may be positive or negative, depending on the receiver receives the information based on a clear understanding of the symbols used in the message.

Negative feedback occurs when an unwanted reaction occurs because of misunderstandings. Sometimes, the lack of feedback is also a kind of feedback.

For example, the total silence by the receiver is also an indicator of effective communication (agreement) or communicator failure (inability to understand, incompatibility).

Observation of changes in the recipient’s reaction indirect interaction is a source of valuable feedback where the recipient does not express his reaction.

For example, if the counselor gives a speech to a depressive student and notes that he is more relaxed, cheerful, and willing to talk during the next visit.  He interprets this change as a definite answer.

 Feedback happens immediate or delayed depending upon types of it. For example, oral answers mostly immediately transmit, whereas the written communication’s feedback may take some time.

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