In this article you will read an essay on earthquake for students and children. It includes meaning, types, causes, effects, and management of earthquakes.
Lets start this essay on earthquake for students.
Essay on Earthquake (1000 Words)
The planet Earth has gone through a number of changes throughout the course of its time. Most of these changes are a result of natural disasters that usually occur. Pollution, ozone layer depletion, and global warming have become major threats today.
However, some natural calamities have been a threat to the planet for a really long time. Natural disasters occur in a number of forms, like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, droughts, storms, cyclones, etc.
One of these natural disasters that can do a lot of damage to the ecosystem is an earthquake.
What is an Earthquake?
The shaking of the surface of the Earth is known as an earthquake. It occurs as a sudden trembling of the surface and is a natural event. It is basically caused due to the release of energy from the interior portion of the Earth.
Undoubtedly, earthquakes do not occur frequently, but they are terrible natural disasters and can cause huge damage to life and property. One can come across many kinds of earthquakes; some of them are weak and go unnoticed, while others are strong and severe.
The most dangerous thing about an earthquake is that it is usually unpredictable and comes without any indication. Earthquakes usually occur due to the movement of the tectonic plates, and their intensity is measured on the Richter scale.
Types of Earthquake
There are mainly four different types of earthquakes, namely, tectonic, volcanic, collapse, and explosive.
The crust of the Earth is made up of slabs of rocks of uneven shapes and sizes; these are known as tectonic plates. Energy is stored in these tectonic plates, making them push or pull towards each other.
This pressure builds up between the adjacent plates, thereby producing a fault line. This acts as an epicentre or focus, from which energy is sent in the form of waves towards the surface. This causes an earthquake on the surface.
This is a type of earthquake that has a weak natural magnitude. These types of earthquakes usually occur in the caverns and the mines. Any underground blast in the mines causes seismic waves that can cause a small earthquake.
As per the name, the volcanic earthquake is caused by volcanic activity. Just like the collapse earthquake, these are also of weaker magnitude. A light magnitude earthquake due to the explosion of magma from the volcanoes.
Causes of Earthquake
Earthquakes are usually caused by the movement of the tectonic plates under the surface of the Earth. The breaking of a tectonic plate or sliding of the adjacent tectonic plates releases energy that produces seismic waves. The tectonic plates are never static, and they always keep on moving.
Whenever two tectonic plates touch each other, it becomes a hotspot for earthquakes. These tectonic plates start sliding against each other, and they never slide smoothly. Friction occurs between the plates, and a tremendous amount of energy is released.
This energy gets converted into seismic waves. The seismic waves then travel to the surface, causing earthquakes.
Depending on the depth of the epicenter, location, and magnitude, the seismic waves have the potential to tear the surface of the Earth, thus damaging buildings and other natural ecosystems. The areas where this activity occurs are usually known as geological faults.
The portion of the intersection of two tectonic plates is known as a fault line, which may vary from a few metres to hundreds of kilometers. These are the most common points in an earthquake.
Effects of Earthquake
Earthquakes do not cause any direct harm to human civilizations most of the time. But they can do a lot of damage to different parts of the ecosystem and can also hurt property.
The displacement of the Earth’s surface or the ground is one of the most dangerous impacts of an earthquake. It can even collapse buildings, damage all forms of property, and can also lead to the loss of lives.
The damage can block roads and bridges and can cause catastrophic problems for a few months. Earthquakes can also affect electric power and gas lines and also have a chance to cause fire breakouts.
An earthquake is also responsible for an event known as liquefaction. It is a process when the sand and soil beneath any infrastructure become very soft and mix with the groundwater.
This loosens the underground area and can cause the overall structure to topple over several feet beneath the ground. It can even lead to a fall off of the structure.
A typical earthquake can cause significant damage or ruptures to dams, embankments, and riverbanks.This leads to the release of water into the nearby area. This water would then flood the area, damaging agricultural land and other properties as well.
When an earthquake occurs beneath the ocean, it can possibly cause a tsunami. The waves of the tsunami bring a lot of water and are strong enough to destroy anything in their path.
Disaster Management in Earthquake
While earthquakes are an inevitable phenomenon, they cannot be avoided. However, precautions and necessary steps can be taken.
- People just stay indoors until the shaking stops. Moreover, if you have an open space, one should be there as such places have a reduced risk.
- For a light magnitude earthquake, one must stay away from furniture, shelves, heavy appliances, objects, and other items as well.
- Take shelter under a firm object like a table or bed, and hold on to something strong and fixed.
- Check for proper electricity and gas connections. You must ensure that there are no leaks in the system. The main power switch and the main gas valves should be checked properly.
- To be well prepared for the issues, the residents of the regularly affected areas should have first aid kits on hand to treat minor injuries. Medical staff should always be prepared for such events.
An earthquake is a devastating natural phenomenon that can cause terrible damage. It cannot be avoided by any means, but measures can be taken to prepare for it.
The good thing about earthquakes is that they only last a few seconds. I hope you liked this essay on earthquake.